Tag Archives: financial goals

What Is An Exchange Traded Fund and How It Works

Guest Article By Shashank Pawar

Investors seeking exposure to an index can consider ETF investing as an option. Exchange traded funds are one of the many types of mutual funds available today and gaining popularity among various kinds of investors. While you may be familiar with equity mutual funds, debt funds or balanced funds, ETFs are yet another class of mutual funds that function a bit differently. ETFs are mutual funds designed to mimic popular market indices like the Nifty 100, BSE 100, Sensex etc. These are passively managed funds that simply hold the stocks of the index they are supposed to mimic exactly in the same proportion as the index. Since the fund managers don’t take active calls in security selection by holding the same stocks as included in the index, these funds are passively managed.

Exchange traded funds are suitable for first-time investors who would like to test the waters and may not be comfortable with the higher risk associated with regular mutual funds.

There are several advantages of investing in an ETF. Firstly, being passively managed they make fewer transactions as compared to actively managed funds where the fund manager must constantly look for securities that can help him outperform the scheme’s benchmark. This leads to higher portfolio turnover resulting in higher tax incidence. Funds pay taxes like STT (Securities Transaction Tax) and capital gains tax while buying or selling securities within their portfolio. Thus, ETFs are more tax efficient and have lower costs arising out of fund management.

Secondly ETFs also usually have lower expense ratio compared to actively managed mutual funds which must employ highly skilled fund managers for generating active returns.

Thirdly ETFs offer more convenience and liquidity to investors since they are listed on exchanges and trade like stocks. Investors can transact in ETF funds any time during market hours at real-time prices unlike actively managed mutual funds where NAV is computed only once a day after the market closes.

ETFs offer better diversification since they carry all the securities listed in the index which are periodically rebalanced. But the reduced risk arising out of greater diversification in exchange-traded funds comes at the cost of possibly lower returns as compared to other mutual funds. Actively run mutual funds are more likely to earn a better return over the long-term than passively managed funds since the fund manager uses his expertise and takes active calls to buy better-performing stocks and sell underperforming stocks. But in the case of an ETF that mimics an index, all kinds of stocks are held including the underperformers.

ETF investors should consider funds with lower tracking error as a key performance indicator. Tracking error shows the deviation in return of a fund from its benchmark. Since these funds mimic their respective indices, tracking error should be close to zero. However, zero tracking error is impossible since it must buy or sell securities to align with the index whenever the index undergoes a rebalancing and hence must bear some transaction costs. However, indices have no such constraints. Investors keen on lower expense ratio and higher liquidity can consider including ETFs in their financial planning.

You can read more about ETF funds on Mutual Funds Sahi Hai, an investor education initiative by AMFI.

Article Source: https://EzineArticles.com/expert/Shashank_Pawar/2571655

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Discretionary Income Choices

Guest article By Robert Alan Stewart

Making the most of your discretionary income

Discretionary income is what you have left over after paying your fixed costs. It is yours to spend on whatever you choose.

But…
How you spend this money can make a difference to your financial situation, but before this we have to ascertain what is discretionary income.

Rent/rates

Car running expenses

Power

Debt

Groceries etc.

People who have an addiction of some kind will prioritize their spending so that the addiction is included among their fixed expenses.

Everyone as an adult has freedom of choice unless they have debts which means their freedom is being eroded away in relation to their level of debt.

The old Proverb, “The borrower is a slave to the lender,” sums it up.

We all have some control over most of our fixed expenses such as groceries and power;we can cut down on these but with items such as rates/rent are fixed but even then we can choose to live in a more modest apartment or downsize.

The excess to your expenses is called discretionary income.

Another way of increasing your disposable (discretionary) income is to increase your income by getting a part-time job, getting a higher paying job, or selling stuff online.

Saving your discretionary spending for some greater purpose instead of frittering it away gives your life some meaning. Instead of just letting things happen you are making things happen. Many people in 10-20 years time wondered what happened.

There is a major difference between saving your money and investing it. Astute investors use their discretion to increase their wealth by investing in higher risk stocks and shares, gold, and cryptocurrency. There are enough online platforms where you are able to drip feed money into these things if you are still climbing up the investment ladder.

But then you may prefer to save for a holiday and tick off one or two items on your bucket list. The border closures will restrict your choice of places but here in New Zealand there are so many fantastic places to visit it is an opportunity to discover your own backyard.

Among the more popular activities in New Zealand are landing on the Franz and Fox Glaciers, going for a dip in the Hanmer Springs hot pools, visiting the wine region of Marlborough, or attending one of the sports meetings around the country. One thing I have to mention here is the Tranz Alpine Express train journey between Christchurch and Greymouth. It is rated one of the finest train journeys in the world and having experienced it I do not disagree. It has to be on everyone’s bucket list.

Setting financial goals are personal to you gives your life a sense of purpose and deciding how to spend your disposable income can help you achieve your financial goals. My blog http://www.robertastewart.com has lots of articles related to finance.

Article Source: https://EzineArticles.com/expert/Robert_Alan_Stewart/2287449

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